Despite its prevalence, Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is still underdiagnosed. Several clinical features are frequently found in KS patients, although they are highly variable: testicular atrophy is the most common finding, frequently resulting in hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and azoospermia.
The European Academy of Andrology has commissioned an expert task force to provide an up-to-date guideline for the clinical management of KS patient, including diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in order to improve diagnosis rate and outcomes of treatment. The present guidelines therefore provide recommendations and suggestions to care for patients with KS in various developmental stages, ranging from childhood and adolescence to adulthood, based from current evidence.
M. Zitzmann et al. (2020): European academy of andrology guidelines on Klinefelter Syndrome: Endorsing Organization: European Society of Endocrinology. Andrology; DOI: 10.1111/andr.12909